Cancers (Basel). 2019 Dec 8;11(12).

RASSF10 Is a TGFβ-Target That Regulates ASPP2 and E-Cadherin Expression and Acts as Tumor Suppressor That Is Epigenetically Downregulated in Advanced Cancer.

Richter AM, Küster MM, Woods ML, Walesch SK, Gökyildirim MY, Krueger M, Dammann RH.
The Ras Association Domain Family (RASSF) encodes members of tumor suppressor genes which are frequently inactivated in human cancers. Here, the function and the regulation of RASSF10, that contains a RA (Ras-association) and two coiled domains, was investigated. We utilized mass spectrometry and immuno-precipitation to identify interaction partners of RASSF10. Additionally, we analyzed the up- and downstream pathways of RASSF10 that are involved in its tumor suppressive function. We report that RASSF10 binds ASPP1 (Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) and ASPP2 through its coiled-coils. Induction of RASSF10 leads to increased protein levels of ASPP2 and acts negatively on cell cycle progression. Interestingly, we found that RASSF10 is a target of the EMT (epithelial mesenchymal transition) driver TGFβ (Transforming growth factor beta) and that negatively associated genes of RASSF10 are significantly over-represented in an EMT gene set collection. We observed a positive correlation of RASSF10 expression and E-cadherin that prevents EMT. Depletion of RASSF10 by CRISPR/Cas9 technology induces the ability of lung cancer cells to proliferate and to invade an extracellular matrix after TGFβ treatment. Additionally, knockdown of RASSF10 or ASPP2 induced constitutive phosphorylation of SMAD2 (Smad family member 2). Moreover, we found that epigenetic reduction of RASSF10 levels correlates with tumor progression and poor survival in human cancers. Our study indicates that RASSF10 acts a TGFβ target gene and negatively regulates cell growth and invasion through ASPP2. This data suggests that epigenetic loss of RASSF10 contributes to tumorigenesis by promoting EMT induced by TGFβ.
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