Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2009; 16:211-224.
Transcriptome analysis in mouse tumors induced by RET-MEN2/FMTC mutations reveals subtype-specific role in survival and interference with immune surveillance.
Engelmann D, Koczan D, Ricken P, Rimpler U, Pahnke J, Li Z, Pützer BM.
Activating mutations in the Ret proto-oncogene are responsible for occurrence of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). A striking genotype-phenotype correlation between the mutated RET codon and clinical manifestation implies that tumorigenesis is conditioned by the type of mutation. We investigated gene expression profiles between and within distinct MEN2 subtypes through whole-genome microarray analysis in tumors induced by NIH-3T3 cells transformed with defined RET-MEN2A (C609Y, C634R), MEN2B, (A883F, M918T), and FMTC (Y791F) mutations. Expression profiling identified a statistically significant modification of 1494 genes, 628 down- and 866 upregulated in MEN2B compared with MEN2A/FMTC tumors. By contrast, no obvious alterations were observed among individual MEN2B and MEN2A type mutations, or between MEN2A and FMTC. Functional clustering of differential genes revealed RET-MEN2B specific upregulation of genes associated with novel growth and survival pathways. Intriguingly, RET-MEN2A/FMTC-specific tumors were characterized by a considerable number of genes involved in the host antitumor immune response via stimulation of natural killer/T-cell proliferation, migration, and cytotoxicity, which were completely absent in RET-MEN2B related cancers. QPCR on tumors versus cultured NIH-RET cell lines demonstrated that they are largely attributed to the host innate immune system, whereas expression of CX3CL1 involved in leukocyte recruitment is exclusively RET-MEN2A/FMTC tumor cell dependent. In correlation, massive inflammatory infiltrates were apparent only in tumors carrying MEN type 2A/FMTC mutations, suggesting that RET-MEN2B receptors specifically counteract immune infiltration by preventing chemokine expression, which may contribute to the different clinical outcome of both subtypes.