Brief Bioinform. 2022 Nov 19;23(6):bbac433. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbac433.
Melanoma 2.0. Skin cancer as a paradigm for emerging diagnostic technologies, computational modelling and artificial intelligence
Vera J, Lai X, Baur A, Erdmann M, Gupta S, Guttà C, Heinzerling L, Heppt MV, Kazmierczak PM, Kunz M, Lischer C, Pützer BM, Rehm M, Ostalecki C, Retzlaff J, Witt S, Wolkenhauer O, Berking C
We live in an unprecedented time in oncology. We have accumulated samples and cases in cohorts larger and more complex than ever before. New technologies are available for quantifying solid or liquid samples at the molecular level. At the same time, we are now equipped with the computational power necessary to handle this enormous amount of quantitative data. Computational models are widely used helping us to substantiate and interpret data. Under the label of systems and precision medicine, we are putting all these developments together to improve and personalize the therapy of cancer. In this review, we use melanoma as a paradigm to present the successful application of these technologies but also to discuss possible future developments in patient care linked to them. Melanoma is a paradigmatic case for disruptive improvements in therapies, with a considerable number of metastatic melanoma patients benefiting from novel therapies. Nevertheless, a large proportion of patients does not respond to therapy or suffers from adverse events. Melanoma is an ideal case study to deploy advanced technologies not only due to the medical need but also to some intrinsic features of melanoma as a disease and the skin as an organ. From the perspective of data acquisition, the skin is the ideal organ due to its accessibility and suitability for many kinds of advanced imaging techniques. We put special emphasis on the necessity of computational strategies to integrate multiple sources of quantitative data describing the tumour at different scales and levels.